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Guest Post: Five Things I Wish I Knew Prior to Starting PA School

by Amber Laura, PA-S


Save, save, save!

PA school in itself is very expensive. From the tuition, books, fees, etc., it can be very overwhelming, and having you not wanting to look at your bank nor student loan statement. But, what I wish more people focused on was the importance of saving prior to PA school. The transition into PA school is very expensive, especially if you must relocate. The cost of moving really adds up! I know I spent thousands of dollars moving into my apartment, and I pretty much depleted my savings when I was finished.

My advice is to make a budget and calculate the cost of everything, and if possible, make an extra savings account that is specific for your transition to PA school. Prior to starting school, I picked up extra hours at the hospital I was working at, and saved the extra money and applied it to all the expenses I needed to move. I also paid down a lot of my credit cards, so that way I eliminated one extra bill once I started school.

It’s not always about the grade

The difference between PA school and undergrad is that the information that you are learning in PA school is going to be applicable for the rest of your career. The knowledge we are gaining is the difference between life or death. In undergrad, we learned the information for our exams, and once we took the exam, we more than likely forgot everything, but that is not the case in PA school. More than likely everything that you learn, you will see again. It is not about the grade, but about learning how to be a good provider and being relatable to your patients. Yes, of course, we must take exams, maintain a certain GPA and take the PANCE at the end of PA school, but the 4.0 student is not any better than the 3.0 student; it is how relatable they are to patients and the patient-provider relationship that they create. You can be your class valedictorian, but if your patients do not trust you, then what difference does it make?

Your study skills will change

Prior to PA school, I was very much a kinesthetic learner and I preferred studying alone. Though, this has remained mostly the truth throughout PA school, I have also adapted other ways to study. For each class, exam, etc., you must study a different way. For example, in my Clinical Medicine and Pharmacology class, I have utilized videos and notecards to learn the material, which I was not a huge fan of previously; while in Anatomy and Physiology, I used to study in groups, which I HATED prior to PA school.

If you feel like you are not being successful in one of your classes, do not be afraid to switch up the way you study. Don’t be so rigid and stuck in your ways that you ultimately undermine yourself along the way.

It’s okay to take a day off

Mental health and self-care is everything! My first quarter I was so scared to not study, and I felt guilty when I wasn’t, so I was studying non-stop and wasn’t making time for myself. Ultimately, this led to burnout midway through the quarter.

Dedicate one day where you do NOTHING school-related, and plan that day around something that you love to do whether that is going out with your friends, watching television, etc. Contrary to popular belief, PA school is not your WHOLE life (even though it may seem like it at times), but only a small segment of your life. You do not want to be so immersed in PA school that you do not take time out to take care of yourself and miss out on all the other aspects on your life.


Find a mentor

Mentors are good for a variety of reasons. For one, they can give you personal experiences on their journey to becoming a PA, and they can give you tips and advice along the way, so that way you do not make the same mistakes that they made. They are also good for moral support, and can give you encouragement when you are feeling discouraged. They have once been in your shoes, and they know EXACTLY how you are feeling.

There are various ways to find a mentor. Instagram and Facebook have a large community of PA’s, and I am sure a lot of them would be willing to serve as your mentor. Do not be afraid to reach out to someone and seek advice.


You can follow Amber’s journey on Instagram @AmbzThePA___xo and be sure to check out her blog:



by Stephen Benton, Emory PA-S2 | Saturday, Dec 16, 2017


I recently finished my first clinical rotation of PA school, internal medicine.  It was a fast and furious 4.5 week, but I learned a ton and came out with some tips that I think would be super helpful for anyone (MD, PA, DO, NP, etc.) rotating through medicine to have.  These tips are all based on my experience from my rotation as well with recommendations from some colleagues.  It’s just advice, you’ve got to do what works for you!  That being said, let’s jump right in.

10. Be ready for a challenge; you will be tested

Maybe my IMIP (internal medicine inpatient) experience left me a bit, charred; to be fair, I’m still recovering.  Myself and three of my classmates were thrown into the belly of the beast that is internal medicine at a big teaching hospital in downtown Atlanta for our very first clinical rotation.  It was humbling enough to be surrounded by some of the world’s smartest and most esteemed physicians, residents, interns, and medical students, but charging head first into the entirety of medicine fresh out of didactic was quite literally trial by fire.

All I could do was hang on for dear life and try my best to make a little bit of progress every single day.  You may end your day in tears, feeling dumb, or feeling like you don’t know anything, but rest assured that this entirely normal and that everyone goes through it.  Consider it a rite of passage of sorts.

You were accepted into school because you were identified as someone who is A. awesome, B. wicked smart, and C. a life-long learner.  Medicine is a dynamic and rapidly evolving field; there’s something new to know every day!  We had daily lunch conferences which addressed all different topics in medicine so that everyone can stay up to date on the latest updates in medicine, research, and changes to guidelines.  Everyone is continually learning and improving, so don’t feel bad if you don’t know something or forgot what the only two medications that have been proven to reduce mortality in heart failure are like I did.  Two thumbs way up, you got THIS!  In case you’re wondering, it’s ace inhibitors and beta-blockers.

9.  Learn your bread and butter diagnoses

Heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, gout, DVT/PE, myocardial infarction, kidney disease, hyperlipidemia, HIV, and electrolyte abnormalities are common; common things occur commonly! If there are any diseases that I would suggest anyone studying up on before their internal medicine rotation it would be these.  Many of the patients that you’ll see will have several chronic medical conditions and often present with acute exacerbations of their ongoing disease.  Studying up on the pathophysiology and typical treatment regimens for these everyday bread and butter diagnoses will make your life that much easier when you step foot onto wards day one of your medicine rotation.

8.  Practice your oral presentation

No one wants to do this, but if you do it just a couple of times a week before your rotation you will thank yourself, trust me.  Giving an oral presentation is tough; it’s a lot of information that needs to be organized and synthesized into a concise, coherent, and reasonably well thought out presentation that you will soon be giving on rounds in front of your team of residents, interns, medical students, and peers.  No pressure.

Mastering the oral presentation takes a long time, a lot of practice, and repetition.  To make matters worse, every attending physician is different in how they like their patients presented.  The only way to know how they like it is to ask or to give your standard presentation and let them inform you of what they want to know vs. what you might leave out next time.

My suggestion is to break your presentation down one piece at a time and don’t move on until you feel comfortable; chief complaint with duration, history of present illness, past medical history, family history, social history, review of systems, vital signs, physical exam, labs, imaging, assessment, plan.  Find some old patient vignettes and practice doing your opening statement and HPI.  If you can capture your audience in the first few seconds of your presentation you’ll likely keep them engaged for the rest of it, which is why it is so important to be able to confidently begin your presentation with a clear and concise chief complaint and HPI.

Ask a faculty member, upperclassmen, or colleague to listen to your presentation and provide you with feedback.  It can be uncomfortable and awkward to present a patient, especially as a new clinical student, but it is a valuable tool that you will have to use over and over again.  So, embrace the suck and take it one step at a time.  I promise you that it will start to come naturally once you do a few and get some practice and repetition in.  Be patient with yourself, learn from your mistakes, and try to get a little bit better every day.  Soon you’ll be getting compliments on your impressive oral presentations like a boss.

7. Get a pocket resource book

There are a ton of pocket resources out there.  If you’re a member of the AAPA (American Academy of Physician Assistants) and you should be, you probably have the Maxwell pocketbook.  Maxwell is a useful tool, but you will probably want a pocket resource that goes a bit a more in-depth.  I really like the MDPocket book for Physician Assistants: Internal Med/ER edition except for its lack of a table of contents or index – not having that was ultra-frustrating.

The other pocketbook that I use and what you may want to get is the Pocket Medicine: The Massachusetts General Hospital Handbook of Internal Medicine.  All of its content is evidence-based and provides you with the research publication that its guidelines are based off.  If you follow me on YouTube (and you should – @pagethepa), you have seen me make mention of this book before.  It’s an excellent reference (with an index!) that is a reliable tool to have and use in between patients on rounds.

6.  Get these apps for your smartphone, you will use them frequently

Some of my favorite apps include MDCalc, Epocrates (there’s a free version and a full version), DynaMed Plus or UptoDate (subscription required), the CDC guideline apps, uCentral, and Journal Club.  To be fair, in my limited time I only used these few apps, but I am sure that there are plenty of other great ones for internal med.  Let me know if there are any apps that you have used and liked!

5.  Know your labs, what they measure, and how to interpret them

  • Complete Cell Count with differential (CBC)
  • Basic/Complete metabolic panel (Chem 7/14)
  • Arterial/venous blood gas
  • Liver function tests (AST, ALT, Alk Phos, etc.)
  • Your special tests such as troponin, lipase, procalcitonin, lactic acid, brain natriuretic peptide, CK-MB, etc.

As you progress through your rotation, you will start to pick up on which labs are pertinent/important for different pathologies (i.e. Creatinine, BUN, GFR, CrCl for kidney function).  You will be ordering and interpreting labs on every single patient you see, so you’ll want to be especially astute in this area.  It is also good to know the normal ranges for these labs, but this is difficult to really nail down until you have some clinical context (at least it was for me).

4.  Get familiar with the typical electrolyte abnormalities, their complications, and how to correct them

The significant electrolytes that we worry about are Sodium, Chloride, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphorus.  These can be too high or too low in the bloodstream and come with their own set of problems and complications.  These abnormalities can be caused by a plethora of things including diabetes, vomiting/diarrhea, kidney disease, liver disease, iatrogenesis (when we cause the problem, typically due to medication), and more.  Electrolyte abnormalities frequently occur so knowing their manifestations, complications, and treatments will greatly serve you when you come across them in your patients, and you will!

3.  Find 1-2 resources that work for you and STICK with them

For me, this was OnlineMedEd (OME), an online resource that provides concise 10-20-minute-long chalk talk-style lecture videos covering topics in medicine.  OME was an invaluable resource as I am a multi-modal learner and learn best when I have someone to walk me through the broad strokes of a topic with visuals and audio.  Once I have a basic, foundational understanding of a subject I can then go back and fill in the details on my own.  OME was the perfect resource for me, and I am so glad that I found it.  You have to find what works for you though because not everyone learns in the same manner.

I also loved having the book Clinical Pathophysiology Made Ridiculously Simple.  Again, I need to read it, hear it, see it, and sniff it before I know it.  No this isn’t the most efficient modality of learning, but that’s what I’m stuck with.  This book was great for giving me a comprehensive, but simplified overview of a pathology so I could at least know a little bit about what’s going on even though I may not have known the exact diagnosis algorithm and treatment guidelines.  I supplemented my pathophysiology reading with Porth’s Essentials of Pathophysiology.  I also used Cecil’s Essentials of Medicine and the USMLE Step 2 CK First Aid book.

2.  Use the patient’s problem list to guide your learning

What’s a problem list?  Well, to put it bluntly, it’s a list of medical issues that your patient has or has had in the past that you will use to formulate your assessment and care plan.  This list is organized into a systems-based problem list (i.e. neuro, psych, cardio, pulm, etc.) or a priority-based list (i.e. 1, 2, 3).  For the sake of brevity, we will use the priority-based problem list, starting with the patient’s most severe/critical problem (i.e. acute myocardial infarction) and then continue on with the less pressing issues (hypertension – controlled, etc.).

Generally speaking, on your medicine rotation you’ll pick up and start following one patient at a time.  I recommend focusing on your one patient’s problem list and studying up on their chronic medical problems, at least as a new clinical student.  Working on one patient a time will give you the opportunity to know your patient backward and forwards while learning/re-familiarizing yourself with the framework of treating common pathologies that may or may not have forgotten from didactic year.

If you try to learn too much at a time, you will find yourself overwhelmed and stressed.  If your patient has a problem list a mile-long, and they often do, focus on the top 2-3 problems. When you get home, pull up a couple of YouTube videos, review the chapter in your book, or use another resource to brush up on the problem so that when you come back the next day to present your patient on rounds, you will be prepared to discuss some of the patient’s pathophysiology as well as treatment options based on evidence that you looked up.

1.  Don’t be afraid of getting pimped

What did you just say? Getting pimped? What???  Don’t worry; it’s not what it sounds.  The practice of “pimping” in teaching hospitals is a long-time tradition that involves the attending physician asking the residents, interns, and students questions about medicine on rounds.  These questions can range from being very simple and basic, “what’s the most common EKG finding in a patient with a pulmonary embolism?” to questions that are straight up cruel “could you tell me the exact mechanism that leads to acute encephalopathy and altered mental status in geriatric populations who present with an infection?”

Your attending is testing your knowledge to assess your level of understanding.  Often times you may not have the answers to their questions, and that’s okay.  A simple, “I don’t know that answer, but I will be reading up on it tonight,” tends to be a relatively benign response that won’t invoke too much embarrassment.  These questions aren’t meant to embarrass you or demean your knowledge base, but to assess your progress and stimulate your thinking.  Don’t be afraid of being wrong!  Making mistakes is how we learn, improve, and ensure that we don’t make the same mistake twice.

To summarize, internal medicine is a fantastic but challenging rotation.  You will be exposed to many of the chronic medical conditions that pop up in medicine which will greatly serve your career in medicine, regardless of which specialty/field you go into.  This rotation tends to have long hours, so be sure to rest up, stay hydrated, and keep proper nutrition – your brain will thank you.  Be a sponge and absorb everything you can.  I hope that you are on a great team with some outstanding teachers that care about your education because this can make or break your rotation.  If on the off chance that the team you are on is less than subpar, you will need to take the initiative for your learning.  Be relentless with your questions, don’t be afraid to speak up and get involved, and do plenty of reading.

Remember, you are a student, your job is to LEARN!


If you have any other tips, recommendations, or resources for internal medicine, please feel free to share them with me via e-mail,

You can also view this blog post over on Medelita’s web page:


Clinical Rotations: Week 00 – Humble Pie

Clinical Rotations Update, Week 00 – Humble Pie

I’m making plenty of room for the humble pie that I’ll be eating here real fast. ⠀ ⠀
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The switch from the 15-month didactic segment of PA school to the 14 weeks of clinical rotations is a dichotomous transition in that on one hand, we are catching our breath after running the sprinter’s pace of didactic year – wanting to get some of that R & R. On the other hand, we want | need | feel compelled to prepare and get ready for our first clinical rotation, all at the same time. ⠀ ⠀
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This will hopefully turn into a weekly, albeit brief, recap of each week of my clinical rotation journey – if that’s your jam. ⠀

Check it out on this blog starting 11/19. ⠀
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Week 01 starts Monday, 11/13., I’ll see you back here for an update on the 19th. ⠀ ⠀
Let’s go.

Yes, extra cool whip please.


Why I chose PA and not any other combination of letters; a Guest Blog post for @StreetWearMedical

I chose to become a PA over becoming a medical doctor because well, the girl I was dating at the time told me she wouldn’t wait around for me if I went to med school, so guess which road I took. I’m kidding; I chose PA because I didn’t want to be a doctor.

Four years of grueling medical school, committing to one specialty of medicine, at least three years of residency (but in my case probably way more), and half a million dollars of debt would have left me entering the workforce burned out, having missed out on most of my 30’s, and probably wanting change of scenery. Coming to know myself and my personality has allowed me to make better decisions for the future and the choice to attend PA school instead of medical school at age 28 very simple.

That isn’t to say that I would discourage anyone else in a position similar to mine to chose one path or the other, but to instead follow their heart and chose the profession in which they see themselves the happiest and fulfilling their goals. But for me, this was my decision, my reasoning, and my choice to go PA.

A PA and a doctor are not the same things. They tend to do much of the same thing, but they are not the same thing. Though I jokingly refer to PAs as a sort of Doctor Lite, the truth is that as a PA, you are expected to learn much of what our physician brethren learn, but in two years, not four.

We don’t learn everything that physicians learn. Medical students cover topics in much greater depth and explore why we do things in medicine, whereas PA school is geared more towards the how we do things in medicine approach in which we learn the nuts and bolts of assessing and treating patients. I am not a doctor and have not been to medical school, but I have spoken with many medical students, doctors, and residents to become more informed; needless to say, this is just my basic understanding, and I am always open to learning more.

My undergraduate degree is in Performing Arts with a minor in music performance. I decided that I needed a break from the performing arts world before I graduated college. In my final semester of undergrad, I was burned out and felt as if what I was doing was too self-serving. The reason I sought a career in the performing arts in the first place was to inspire and help others; I didn’t feel as if I was doing that and I wanted to have a more meaningful, direct impact on those I was hoping to serve.

Through friends and family, I was exposed to the medical field, and I became very interested in trying it out and learning more. I became a certified EMT (emergency medical technician) in my home state of Colorado, started working, and began taking all of the pre-medical prerequisites with the plan of feeling things out as I went along, hoping that I would eventually be steered towards one niche in healthcare or another. I considered paramedic school, nursing school, nurse anesthetist, and respiratory therapy, but decided to go big and aim for med school, not knowing much about PAs or what they do.

I had taken the MCAT, completed all of the prereqs for medical school, and was ready to start the application process while I was finishing up my last couple months of the Spanish immersion program I was participating in Xela, Guatemala. After a fair amount of soul-searching, spending some time to research the PA profession, and reflecting on the direction I wanted to take with my life, choosing the PA path was a no-brainer.

I had worked extensively alongside PAs in the emergency department and over the years and became familiar with some of what PAs could do, but I never really considered going to PA school because I wanted to have the autonomy to practice medicine, take part in advanced procedures, and care for high-acuity patients. I didn’t think this was an option as a PA, but I dug deeper into my research and learned that PAs run codes, see trauma patients, assist in the OR, and do all of the things of I which I am interested. Once I discovered this, it was clear that the PA profession would be a path that would allow me to practice medicine and care for people in a manner that fit my lifestyle, goals, and aspirations.

The MD/DO route was too long and required more commitment than I was ready to make; I have a million interests and hobbies and knew that those would have to be sacrificed if I chose to go to medical school. I love medicine and caring for people, but I didn’t need to go to medical school to be able to do this. I wasn’t interested in becoming a nurse, and I didn’t want to have to go back to school after graduating nursing school and working to get experience, so that ruled out NP and CRNA. I didn’t think a career as a paramedic was sustainable for me and I didn’t love the lifestyle that came with working 24-48 hour shifts.

For me, it came down to deciding between medical school and PA school. Once I researched the heck out of PAs and learned about what they do and how they fit into healthcare, I knew it was the profession for me. Here I am having just recently entered my second year of PA school, and I couldn’t be any happier with my decision to pursue a career as a PA.

Medelita Guest Blog Post – Becoming a Physiciant Assistant

Becoming a PA is so much more than a career choice; it’s a lifelong commitment to serve humanity.  Most people don’t roll over in bed one day and say, “you know what, I think I’ll be a PA.”  In fact, arriving at the decision to pursue a career as a PA is not one most arrive at lightly.  It requires a lot of thought, soul searching, introspection, and deliberation.

From submitting the CASPA to applying for state licensure, each milestone met is one step closer to affirming that promise to a lifetime of health and healing.  Being crowned with the “C” that follows the PA title which indicates certification as PA, is much like placing a wedding ring on your partner’s finger.  You take vows, promise to care for one another in sickness and in health, and on this day your journey as a couple really begins.  Much like getting married, becoming certified as a PA is the true beginning of a lifelong pursuit of community health and wellness.

Caring for our fellow humans is no small feat.  It demands courage, sacrifice, and discipline.  Through countless hours of training, we pair the art of medicine with the principles and theories of science, set forth by scholars before us.  We learn humility and empathy through the blood, sweat, and tears that come with caring for ill patients and their families.  But most importantly, we learn what isn’t taught in the classroom or gleaned from books, we learn only what our patients can teach us, and that’s to treat the person behind the pathophysiology.

Because when my health, when my life is in your hands, PA, you’re all I’ve got.  You’re my one chance to defeat illness, to get back up on my feet, to keep enjoying the one shot I have at this thing called life.  Please, see my eyes, hear my words, and understand my story.  I believe in you.

The PA profession was born in the United States out of the dire need for healers when the demand for primary care providers far exceeded supply.  Through the guidance and leadership of Dr. Stead and the willingness of our servicemen and women, a new breed of healthcare professional was born.  The PA.

In the face of this disparity, our early brothers and sisters of the PA profession rose to the challenge.  To answer this call to duty, those before us overcame stigma, resistance, and conquered what seemed to be an impossible task.  Fifty years later, we’re still here and stronger than ever.  But our job isn’t done just yet; we’ve got a long way to go.

We are proud to be PAs.  We care about the health and wellness of the patients we serve.  We are a partner in improving our quality of life both on an individual and community level.

My name is Stephen Benton, I’m a second year PA student at Emory University, and one day soon I will have the great honor to serve as a PA.  Happy 50th Birthday PAs!

To view the blog on Medelita’s site, go here: